Blood gets toxicated because of food and continous work in cells. When our body gets the required food from blood, then remanings are added as discharge to blood. If kidneys don't remove this toxin, this toxin becomes poison for the body.
Kidneys filter the blood through small holes called Nephron. Each individual kidney contains 1 million Nephron's. Inside each Nephron there is web of blood tubes called Glomerulus, which is connected to Tubule ( which collects urine ). Blood is purified by passing through this complex mechanism. First that matter enters in the kidney which can be sent back to body after pufication. Kidneys gather phosphorus, sodium, potassium and sends it back to the body. So in one way kidneys keep balance of chemicals in body.
Other than purification kidneys also release two kinds of hormones known as:
1. Erythropoietin ( which is responsible for red blood cell formation )
2. Calcitriol ( Which is form of vitamin D and keeps balance of calcium in bones and keeps chemical balance in body )
Working of Kidneys
If you are healthy that means your kidneys are also working hundred percent fine. But human doesn't need to be 100 percent for working. Some individuals are born with only one kidney, some donate there one kidney. In each case the body functions perfectly.
The problem arises when kidneys start doing work at or below 25 percent. If this goes to 15 percent the body cannot survive unless it is attached to dialysis. Transplantation has to done at this stage.
In most of kidney diseases Nephrons are the number one target of infections, due to which kidneys cannot purify to there perfection. Infections normally attack both kidneys. If an individual has sugar and blood pressure then that individual is at risk of kidney infection.
In Diabetics, glucose does not gets dissolved fully in blood, and this glucose then harms Nephron. If the level of glucose remains less in blood, kidneys can be remained safe. High blood pressure on the other hand effects the small veins in kidneys due to which kidneys can't perform well.
There are some diseases that only effect Glomerulus due to which when patient urinates blood also comes along with urine. In this condition patient has to keep his/her blood pressure in control.
Why Kidneys get infected
If you eat poisonous matter or get hit hard by accident, you can get kidney infection. Some times taking medicine for a long period of time can also cause kidney infections. According to research those medicine which contain Aspirin, Acetaminophen, ibuprofen etc are dangerous for kidneys.
During accident if large amount of blood is discharged from body or you got hit very hard, this can immediately effect the proper working of kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Infections
If you get kidney infection at first you will not notice it at all you will feel yourself perfectly fine. But as time passes by, if you feel that urine is coming too much or less, you feel dizzy all day, or feel very sleepy all the time, feel tired, you don't feel hungry, if you eat you feel that if you might vomit. Your hand and feet get swollen. You feel very bad head aches for some time when you get up from sleep. These all are symptoms of kidney infection.
Medical Tests of Kidneys
There are different types of tests to check whether kidney is infected or not.
1. Creatinine Test ( creat ).
2. Creatinine Clearance (CrCl).
4. Glomerular Filtration Rate ( GFR and eGFR).
5. Haemoglobin Test (Hb).
6. Platelets test (plats).
8. White cell count test.
9. PTH which stands for Parathyroid Hormone.
How to fight Kidney Infections
If the conditions of kidney is very bad, unfortunately kidneys then cannot be repaired. You have to do dialysis or transplantation.
If kidney infection is in early stages, then through different medicines and methods kidneys can be kept healthy. Also one has to make sure that paralysis and heart attack are in control, because these can cause kidney infection. If patient is diabetic, keep the sugar level controlled and before taking any medicine ask doctor.
The Play of Diet
Kidney patient should know that daily necessities can worsen the infection. Like protein, which is vital part for normal body functions. Infected kidneys cannot remove proteins from toxins, so normally doctors advise there patients to avoid protein so that kidneys have to work less. But protein has to be maintained by body so ask alternative foods that can provide protein.
Patient should avoid smoking, avoid salt as it increases the blood pressure. Keep balance of potassium in body. Healthy kidneys can remove excessive potassium from body, but infected kidneys cannot perform this function very well, so be careful.
If kidneys stop working completely
This condition is called Uremia, in which kidney stop working completely. So patient has to do dialysis in this case. There are two types of dialysis namely:
2. Peritonial dialysis
If patient is lucky enough he can get donation of kidney which is known as kidney transplantation. So always drink plenty of water so that kidneys keep working properly.